The China-Pakistan nuclear deal: where have all the ayatollahs gone?
The Guardian carried a rather sensationalist piece by Chris McGreal on how Israel had, at one point, offered to sell nuclear weapons to South Africa. Some in the United States are fuming at the idea that a U.S. “proxy” considered selling nuclear weapons to an “autocratic, unstable state” (South Africa was under apartheid at the time) — somehow, apparently, this undermines the U.S.’s “moral authority.” It is another matter entirely that this report had little factual basis.
In fact, the outrage that is non-story has generated has largely obscured the very credible, and potentially significant story coming out of Beijing:
Chinese companies will build at least two 650-megawatt reactors at Chashma in Punjab, the Financial Times said.A statement posted on the website of the China National Nuclear Corporation on March 1 said the financing for two new reactors at Chashma was agreed by the two sides in February.
“Our Chinese brothers have once again lived up to our expectations,” the Financial Times quoted an unidentified Pakistani official as saying of the deal, which would help Pakistan cope with a crippling energy crisis. “They have agreed to continue cooperating with us in the nuclear energy field.” [Dawn]
Some sources indicate that the U.S. is unlikely to broach this issue with the Chinese. In some ways, the Obama administration may feel that this alleviates its own moral burden, faced with increasing pressure from Pakistan for a civilian nuclear deal. Of course, the administration would be missing the point — Pakistan’s desire for civilian nuclear energy is subordinate to its desire for parity with India in the eyes of the U.S. In that regard, Pakistan’s quest for a nuclear deal with the U.S. has nothing to do with its need for nuclear energy.
The implications of specific aspects of the China-Pakistan deal will need to be further examined when more information is made available. If their previous track records are any indication, these reactors will not be subject to IAEA safeguards or inspections. Other questions exist — will China seek to “grandfather” the new reactors with those it built in Pakistan prior to joining the NSG? If not, how could China possibly ensure that an exception is made for Pakistan at the NSG in the event that the reactors are kept out of IAEA’s purview?
Purely from the perspective of strategic balance in South Asia, this deal may not alter much. However, a couple of issues need to be considered in light of this deal. First, the impact of this deal is of greater consequence to the Middle East than it is to South Asia — particularly to Saudi Arabia and Iran. Saudi Arabia’s “nuclear-capacity-by-proxy” strategy has paid rich dividends via Pakistan’s frantic acceleration of weapons production on its behalf. Two 650 MW reactors will give this cozy arrangement fresh impetus, if any was needed. By extension, this puts considerable strain on Iran’s own nuclear program.
Second, what does the deal say about non-proliferation ayatollahs in the Obama administration? Clearly, altered dynamics after the economic crisis, and China’s importance in negotiating through the nuclear issue with Iran leaves the U.S. with minimal leverage over China. China, for its part, is using the opportunity to violate the spirit of those existing non-proliferation regimes on a technicality. Of course, it has been doing this for ages, rather clandestinely. Now, it does so brazenly.
There may be little that India can do to prevent the deal from going through. In this context, the 2010 UN NPT RevCon directive to India (and Israel) to sign the NPT is absurd and deserving of contemptuous dismissal. A world order where global nuclear non-proliferation regimes attempt to shackle, curtail and impose significant costs on those willing to abide by established norms, but lack the capacity to punish those who willfully violate them in letter and spirit is unacceptable. The necessity for India to be at the forefront of defining a new world order where verifiable, non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament is the objective, is felt more acutely now than ever.